- The cluster maanagement & Orchestration features are embedded inside Docker Engine.
- Docker swarm consists of multiple docker hosts which run in swarm mode.
- Two Roles managers and workers exist in Docker swarm
- Manager is responsible for membership & delegation
- Worker is responsible for running swarm services
- Each Docker Host can be a manager, a worker or both.
- In Docker Swarm Desired State is maintained. For instance if you are running one container in swarm on a particular node (Worker) and that node goes down, then Swarm schedules this nodes task on other node to maintain the state.
- Task is a running container which is part of swarm service managed by Swarm Manager
- It is instance of the docker engine participating in Swarm.
- There are two kinds of nodes
- Manager nodes:
- You communicate to manager node to deploy applications in the form of Service Definitions.
- Manager nodes dispatch unit of work called as tasks to the Worker ndoes
- Worker nodes:
- They receive & execute the tasks dispatched from manager nodes.
- An agent runs on the worker node & reports on the tasks assigned to it
- Manager nodes:
Services and tasks
- Service is the definition of the task to be executed.
- Typically it would be the application to be deployed.
- Two kinds of Service models are available
- Replicated Services model: In this case swarm manager distributes a specific number of replica task among the nodes based upon the scale you set in the desired state
- Global Services Model: In this case swarm runs one task for the service on every available node in the cluster.
- carries a Docker container and the commands to run inside the container.
- It is the atomic secheduling unit of swarm.
- Once a task is assigned to node, it cannot move to another node.
- It can only run on the assigned node or fail.
- In this series, I would be using 3 ubuntu 18 machines.
- One would be manager & other two would be workers.
- Install docker on all the machines by following instructions from here
- Login into ssh session of the machie which would be manager.
- Ensure all the machines can be communicated (or pingable from manager)
- Make a note of private ip address of the manager (In this example the managers ip address would be 172.31.42.125) and then exec
docker swarm init --advertise-addr <Manager-ip> # In my case this is docker swarm init --advertise-addr 172.31.42.125 ##Outpu### Swarm initialized: current node (uyclb1gbhhqhlo80aq7zhx2z4) is now a manager. To add a worker to this swarm, run the following command: docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-1w51ouq6zrmts85l71z53ruqcc1pivzprpigdodspu58o7dp3z-172clbo51xq8w7uwizm8cc19t 172.31.42.125:2377 To add a manager to this swarm, run 'docker swarm join-token manager' and follow the instructions.
docker infoon the manager and observe the output should consists of Swarm: active and other info about Docker Swarm.
- Execute command
docker node lsand you should see the status of the manager node
- Now login into other nodes and execute docker swarm join command which is output of the docker swarm init command as mentioned above.
docker swarm join --token SWMTKN-1-1w51ouq6zrmts85l71z53ruqcc1pivzprpigdodspu58o7dp3z-172clbo51xq8w7uwizm8cc19t 172.31.42.125:2377 ##Output## This node joined a swarm as a worker.
Now ssh into the manager and execute
docker node lsand you should be able to see three nodes information.
Lets create a tomcat service by using the following command
docker service create --replicas 2 --name tomcat tomcat:8
- This command leads to creation of tasks and output would be like
tvdml6nt5dryszozaydr8sv8o overall progress: 2 out of 2 tasks 1/2: running [==================================================>] 2/2: running [==================================================>] verify: Service converged
docker service lsand the possible output would look like
ID NAME MODE REPLICAS IMAGE PORTS tvdml6nt5dry tomcat replicated 2/2 tomcat:8
- Lets inspect the service using
docker service inspect --pretty tomcatand the output of the command would be
ID: tvdml6nt5dryszozaydr8sv8o Name: tomcat Service Mode: Replicated Replicas: 2 Placement: UpdateConfig: Parallelism: 1 On failure: pause Monitoring Period: 5s Max failure ratio: 0 Update order: stop-first RollbackConfig: Parallelism: 1 On failure: pause Monitoring Period: 5s Max failure ratio: 0 Rollback order: stop-first ContainerSpec: Image: tomcat:8@sha256:bb4ceffaf5aa2eba6c3ee0db46d863c8b23b263cb547dec0942e757598fd0c24 Init: false Resources: Endpoint Mode: vip
docker service ps tomcatcommand to findout on which node the tasks are executed.
- Lets scale the number of containers running tomcat by using the following command
docker service scale tomcat=4and the output would be
tomcat scaled to 4 overall progress: 4 out of 4 tasks 1/4: running [==================================================>] 2/4: running [==================================================>] 3/4: running [==================================================>] 4/4: running [==================================================>] verify: Service converged
- Service can be deleted using the follwing command
docker service rm tomcat
Rolling updates to docker swarm
- Execute the following command to deploy jenkins
docker service create --name jenkins --replicas 2 --update-delay 10s --publish published=8081,target=8080 jenkins:1.609.1
- Now navigate to ipaddress of any node and http://<nodip>:8081
- Now lets try to update to the newer version of jenkins
docker service update --image jenkins:latest jenkins
Relevance to Docker Networking
- In this series so far we were able to run docker containers on different nodes from swarm manager.
- Now execute this command
docker network lson the manager and you should see the output which would look like
NETWORK ID NAME DRIVER SCOPE 4fa602b7a4ec bridge bridge local c3ba8230b575 docker_gwbridge bridge local 436956ab2dd0 host host local m6zbhh5cn5ag ingress overlay swarm dfa793d07248 none null local
- In this overlay network driver is used and scope for that driver is swarm.
- So we can conclude that Docker swarm uses overlay and bridge (docker_gwbridge) to enable multiple Docker Host Communications.
How Docker Swarm Works?
- Docker swarm uses RAFT Consensus Algorithm to maintain a consistent internal state of the entire swarm and all the services running on it.
- Manager nodes handle cluster management tasks
- cluster state management
- service scheduling
- serving Swarm mode
To take advantage of swarm mode’s fault-tolerance features, Docker recommends you implement an odd number of nodes according to your organization’s high-availability requirements. When you have multiple managers you can recover from the failure of a manager node without downtime.
* A three-manager swarm tolerates a maximum loss of one manager. * A five-manager swarm tolerates a maximum simultaneous loss of two manager nodes. * An N manager cluster tolerates the loss of at most (N-1)/2 managers. * Docker recommends a maximum of seven manager nodes for a swarm.
- Instance of Docker Engine whose purpose is to execute containers
- They dont participate in Raft distributed state or any of the managers tasks.
- Worker Node can be made Manager node by using
docker node promote. note: This has to be executed by Manager Node
Docker Service LifeCycle
External Access For Docker Services
Ingress Mode Service Publishing
docker service create --replicas 2 --publish mode=ingress,target=80,published=8080 nginx
- This mode publishes the exposed port on every Swarm node.
- Load balancing happens in this mode
Host Mode Service Publishing
docker service create --replicas 2 --publish mode=host,target=80,published=8080 nginx
- In this mode the published port is exposed on the host where this service is running
- Load balancing doesn’t happen