Azure Classroom Series – 18/Mar/2021

Networking Basics

  • IP Address is a unique id given to a device in a network

  • IP Address enables data communication b/w hosts

  • We have two IP Addressing formats

    • IPv4
    • IPv6
  • IPv4 Addresses:

    • consists of 32 bits divided into 4 sections called as octects
    • Each octet contains 8 bits (1 byte) separate by a dot
    • Sample IPv4 Addresses
    192.168.0.198
    

    Preview

  • IP Address is combination of

    • network id
    • host id
  • It is not possible to tell what is network id or what is host id just by ip address, we need a subnet mask for that.

  • Example of using sm to calculate size of the network Preview

  • if we continue with subnet mask as decimal number we have 3 possible sizes for host id

    • one octet => 2^8-2 => 254 devices
    • two octets => 2^16-2 => 65534 devices
    • three octets => 2^24-2 => 16777214 devices
  • Lets assume you are trying to create a network with 500 devices

  • To assign an IP Address range to your network there are two popular addressing schemes

    • Classful Addressing
    • Classless Addressing
  • Classful Addressing:

    • This was introduced in 1981 where IPv4 Addresses were divided into 5 classes (A to E) Preview
  • Classless Interdomain routing (CIDR) was introduced in 1993 to replace classfull addressing. It uses Variable length subnet masks

CIDR

  • In classfull addressing we have looked at subnet mask as a decimal number so we had 3 possibilities
    • 255.255.255.0 => one octet (n/w size)
    • 255.255.0.0 => two octets (n/w size)
    • 255.0.0.0 => three octets (n/w size)
  • In this approach we look at subnet mask as a binary number Preview

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