Linux Classroom Series – 05/Jul/2020

Linux Useful utils

  • Which Shell are you running?

    • Execute the command echo $0
  • Aborting and suspending the execution of linux programs

    • Control-Z suspends the program
    • Control-C aborts the program
  • Redirecting output of a command to a file instead of terminal (stdout)

    • command > file
    • Eg: ping -c 4 > pingresults.txt
    • If you want to append the text to existing file use >>
    • Eg: ping -c 10 >> pingresults.txt
  • Redirecting input can be done using < eg: head < /proc/cpuinfo

  • Common Errors

    • NO Such file or directory
    • file exists
    • Not a Directory, Is a directory
    • NO space left of device
    • Permission Denied
  • What is softlink (symbolic link) in linux and what is hardlink?

    • Softlink(symbolic) is an actual link to original file whereas hard link is a mirror copy of original file.
    • If you delete the original file, soft link has no value (since t whatever file it points no longer exists)
    • If you delete the original file, hard link will still has the data of the original file
    • Softlink
      • Can cross the file systems
      • Allows yo to link between directories
      • permissions will not be updated
      • has only the path to original file not contents
    • Hard link
      • Can’t cross file system boundaries (it exist on same filesystem)
      • can’t link directories
      • permissions will be updated if we change the source
      • It has contents of original file
    • Create a Symlink or softlink Preview Preview
    • Create a hardlink Preview
    • What will be difference between hard link and normally copied file? Preview
  • Identifying Commands

    • type: Type is a shell builtin command which displays the kind of command once you give a particular command
    type ls
    type cp
    type ping
    type type


    • which-Display an Executable location
    which ls


  • Getting a Commands Documentation

    • help: bash has a built-in help facility for each of the shell builtins.
    help cd
    • –help: Many executable programs support a –help option displays the description of commands
    mkdir --help
    • man: Most executable programs intended for command line usage will provide manual
    man <command>
    man ls
    • apropos-Display appropriate commands
    apropos partition
    • info command: This commadn will show mauals with hyperlinked much like web docs


  • Is a capability of commands to read output of command as input to other command
  • Generally operator | is referred as pipe
command1 | command2
  • Pipelines are often used to perform complex operations on data. It is possible for you to put several commands together into a pipeline
 ls -al /bin /usr/bin | sort | less
 ls -al /bin /usr/bin/ | sort | uniq | wc -l


  • tee command will read from stdin and send the output to stdout and files
ls -al /bin /usr/bin | tee ls.txt | sort | uniq | wc -l

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