DevOps Classroom Series – 28/Mar/2021


  • Docker will use the root as the default user in the docker containers
  • USER instruction can change this behavior and specify a non -root user ad default user
USER <user>
USER <user>:group
  • Lets create a Dockerfile based on Apache Server Refer Here for the Dockerfile
  • Now build the docker image
docker image build -t userdemo:1.0 .


  • Create a container and keep it running in the background Preview Preview
  • EXPOSE instruction is used to inform Docker that a container is listenting on the specified port at run time
EXPOSE <port>
EXPOSE <port>/<protocol>
  • Ports exposed Expose instruction will only be accesible within docker container
  • To access the ports from the host we can use -p <host-port>:<container-port> or -P Preview
  • To verify if the application is running or not we can create HEALTHCHECK insturction
HEALTHCHECK --internal=1m --timeout=2s --retries=3 CMD curl -f http://localhost/ || exit 1


  • Lets remove all the containers Preview Preview
  • Lets remove all the images Preview
  • All the containers are deleted as well as the images
  • Lets understand how image layers impact docker container
  • Refer Here for the changeset containing the dockerfile

Docker Storage

  • The image layers are organized as shown below Preview
  • Lets pull httpd and create 3 containers Preview Preview
  • Now lets run the docker container ls -s Preview
  • SIZE is the actual size of the r/w layer and the virtual size the combined size of Image layer + R/W Layer Preview
  • Docker use Copy-on-write strategy (COW) to make changes in the existing files in the image layers
  • To make this layers work docker uses storage drivers. Docker supports the following storage drivers
    • overlay2
    • aufs
    • devicemapper
    • brtfs storage driver
    • zfs storage drivers
  • Refer Here for the official documentation.
  • When the docker container is deleted the R/W layer is deleted and if the R/W layer is deleted we loose the data generated
  • Before trying to resolve this lets try to understand docker container states Preview Preview Preview
  • In all of the above states apart from Removed/Dead docker container data is still available on the docker host
  • But once we remove the container the data generated in the R/W layer will be deleted Preview

Docker Volumes

  • We can use docker volumes to save the persisted data without relying on containers lifecycle
  • If we create a docker volume and attach it to the container, even if the container is deleted the volume will still be available
  • First option of creating a volume can be done in the Dockerfile, we can use the VOLUME instruction. Refer Here for the docker file
  • Now lets build the image
docker image build -t voldemo:1.0 .


  • Lets execute the following command
docker volume ls
  • now lets create a container from this image Preview
  • Now lets create some dummy files in the /var/www/html folder Preview
  • Now lets inspect volume Preview Preview
  • Now lets remove the container Preview
  • Now even after we remove the container the volume is still present on the docker host and the data in the /var/www/html folder is retained.
  • But this might not be the case as the Dockerfile will not contain volume instruction in all of the cases, so we need to understand how to use Docker volumes by attaching volumes to the containers
  • To attach the volumes to the docker container we need to understand what are different mount types supported by the docker volumes
    • bind mount
    • volume mount
    • tmpfs mount Preview
  • In docker mounts can be done by two kinds of commands
    • -v
    • –mount
  • Bind mount
  • Lets create the container with bind mount
docker container run -d --name bindmountapache --mount "type=bind,source=/root/html,target=/var/www/html" -P httpd

docker container run -d --name bindmountapache2 -v "/root/html:/var/www/html" -P httpd

Preview Preview

  • To make the mounts readonly
docker container run -d --name bindmountapache3 --mount "type=bind,source=/root/html,target=/var/www/html,readonly" -P httpd

docker container run -d --name bindmountapache4 -v "/root/html:/var/www/html:ro" -P httpd

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