Linux Classroom Series – 05/Aug/2020

systemd-journald (journald)

  • journald runs a system service that collects & stores logging data. It has ability to collect logs from user processes, the kernel logs, STDOUT & STDERR
  • journalctl: The primary tool for interacting with journal files collected & maintained by journald is called journalctl
  • Command-line:
    1. command to view all the journal logs
    1. Display most recent 10 journal logs
    journalctl -n 10
    Preview 3. Detailed logs (verbose )
    sudo journalctl -o verbose -n 2
    Preview 4. if you want to view the logs as they are collected
    sudo journalctl -f
    1. view journal logs since last 5 days
    sudo journalctl --since="5 days ago"
    sudo journalctl --since="5 days ago" --until="2 days ago"
    sudo journalctl --since=2019-12-31
    1. To view the logs generated by certain service
    sudo journalctl -u httpd


  • For any os to boot , you need boot loader.
  • Boot loader is the first software program that runs when your computer starts.
  • Boot Loader is responsible for handing over the control of the system to Operating system.
  • Typically boot loader will reside in the Master Boot Record (MBR) of the disk.
  • In Linux distros most widely used boot loader is called as GRUB
  • GRUB comes in 2 versions
    • GRUB Legacy
    • GRUB Version 2 (GRUB 2)
  • GRUB aims to compliant with Multiboot Specifications & offers many features.
  • The GRUB Legacy boot process happens in stages. Each stage is take care by special GRUB image files

Conventions Used in GRUB

  • GRUB has its own special way of referring to devices (optical disc drives, hard disk drives & so on). The device name has to be enclosed in paranthesis ()
  • GRUB starts numbering its devices & partitions from 0. EG: Hard drive on the controller (hd0)


  • GRUB 2 is most widely used boot loader now.
  • Configuration files:
    • Primary configuration file is now named as grub.cfg (In legacy grub we had menu.lst)
    • Multiple files are used to Configure GRUB’s menu & these files are stored in /etc/grub.d/ Preview
    • 00_header => Sets the default values for some GRUB variables
    • 10_linux => Helps to find all the kernels on the root device of current OS.
    • 40_custom => This is where users can edit and store custom menu entries
  • Partition numbers:
    • Partition numbers in GRUB2 device names start at 1. However the physical device/name conventions are same.
  • Configuring GRUB2:
    • Primary configuration file of GRUB2 is grub.cfg which is generally located in /boot/grub2/grub.cfg

How Linux System Starts

  • GRUB loader located in Master Boot record is started
  • GRUB loader will find kernel files and load into RAM
  • Then systemd or SYSVinit (Whatever is configured by distro) will be started which will be PID1

Topics left in Linux

  • File Systems
  • Shell/bash scripting
  • Regular expressions (grep, awk & sed)
  • Cron tab

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